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The Modern Code Reviewer

Long story short

In this blog post, I try to propose a differentiated way to conduct pull requests code reviews to improve their throughput. Let your people choose a code review intensity that matches their experience, confidence, involvement, role, available time, and project timeline. You do this by offering three different pull request review types: shallow reviewcommon review, and expert review.

Your review will be much more accessible to every one of your team, including new team members and the rather shy ones. Additionally, your most involved people, who are usually the bottleneck, will get an instrument to conduct code reviews with reduced intensity in cases where it is sufficient.

The moment you understand that you have a choice when you are requested for a code review, you can distribute your time more evenly and steer away from situations that would cause you to be the bottleneck.


Have you ever heard about the Fagan inspection? It's the first formalized system of a peer review for documents that include source code. Formal peer code reviews are probably the reason why space rockets don't blow up and hopefully prevent radiation therapy devices from giving overdoses to patients due to a software bug (Therac-25).

Creating software for the web is less life-threatening, more forgiving, and happens in much faster development cycles, so we can easily fix bugs and add more features. That's why we can use less formal ways to inspect the code we are writing day by day. Pair programming and over-the-shoulder are two very simple, lightweight and powerful ways to review code, but they are synchronous and require some previous alignment. The majority of code changes we observe these days are going through pull requests.

Pull requests are a common breeding ground for toxic behavior though. When you see people nitpick and fight over small details like code indentationssemicolons or curlies then it's probably caused by the text-based and asynchronous nature of this peer code review type. Thankfully you can agree on issues like that beforehand and collect them in a contribution guideline to focus on the actual problem: Finding the defects in a given code change.

Unfortunately, pull requests can still get pretty frustrating, exhaustive, and ineffective, especially when people are not trained to work with the informal nature of pull requests. The freedom of giving feedback delude people into providing inadequate feedback. They either focus on too many details or people give one-liner feedback, where a proper discussion would be desired.

In addition, people can only spend a limited amount of time on code reviews and entire teams and projects can run into the situation that the pull requests are the bottleneck of their entire development journey. In this post, I want to propose a solution to the throughput problem of pull request code reviews and help people getting more comfortable reviewing code.

In order to keep things simple, I will use the names pull request or its abbreviation PR as well as code reviewpeer review and review interchangeably unless said otherwise even though a peer review or a code review represent much wider concepts than a pull request.

The throughput problem

When talking about code reviews, then usually two roles are involved. The reviewee (author) and one or multiple reviewers (peers checking the code).

The reviewee creates the PR and should ensure that code changes are relevant, well-described, and ready to be reviewed. On the other hand, the reviewer must check the code which is about to land in the shared codebase for functionality and code quality. One or multiple reviewers will conduct the code review, depending on the size of the team and their agreements. There are two ways to assign reviewers: manual or automated.

The manual assignment is probably okay for small teams, where people don't have many choices to decide anyway. The automated way is usually orchestrated by a CODEOWNERS file or you enable auto assignment where you can decide between different routing algorithms like "Round robin" or "Load balance" to ensure people review the same amount of changes.

Regardless of the way you assign people, often you can observe one problem: the limited throughput of code reviews which can cause a large backlog of PRs in the end. The moment PRs start to pile up the team is at risk to get frustrated and overwhelmed by the situation. Small and less important code reviews obstruct important PRs which will block people from progressing as their partial work is neither discussed nor approved. As if things weren't bad enough, the project owner will further increase the pressure on the team once delayed as they don't understand the reasons for the overall situation.

Although every team and project setup is different, there are similarities in why people struggle with code reviews and limited throughput.

The struggling reviewer

Many times you find the assigned reviewers struggling with their assignments for various reasons not always but often being time-related. I have collected and grouped common problems that I encountered in the wild.

Lack of time

The lack of time is a very obvious reason to struggle with code reviews. It's not always the pushing timeline of a project. Often it's a lack of time management and a shifted perception of priorities & responsibilities.

  • You are super busy with your project, so you procrastinate your duty to review. Because it's easier than starting yet another task.

  • You are concerned (without even trying) about pull requests being too time-consuming and preventing you from having a delivery of your actual development work that meets expectations.

  • You are busy and you hope that someone else from the team spares some time for the pending PRs. You ignore your responsibility and rely on someone else's conscientiousness.

  • You are deep into solving a code problem. You just don't have time to switch the context. You procrastinate the duty to review a pending PR until you have solved the problem, which unfortunately ended up taking days and in the meantime, a colleague helped out.

  • You are a seasoned developer and you make sure to fulfill your duties. Furthermore, it's sometimes easier just to do the review instead of reminding the team again. This brings you into the situation that you are constantly busy with reviews and missing the crucial ones due to a lack of time.

  • Your day is full of meetings while your colleagues are programming one new feature after the other. Although you use the breaks between the meetings to check mails and reading the review requests you will never ever be able to check the actual pull request. You trust your peers to review and you get back to your meeting.

Lack of knowledge

You can observe a lack of knowledge and confidence usually among new team members, inexperienced colleagues, or in general insecure persons.

  • You're not fully involved in the topic, therefore you don't feel suited to review the code.

  • You're new to the team. and you don't think it's appropriate to provide reviews in a codebase you don't fully understand.

Lack of confidence

  • You are an inexperienced developer and the things you see in a PR, just scare you.

  • You feel intimidated. You don't feel comfortable reviewing a given PR, because the PR is created by a seasoned colleague with a much higher level. Your feedback is not worth nor expected.

  • It's a super complex PR. You don't even understand the problem it's solving. You feel intimidated and leave the fun to others.

  • You're new to the team. It's intimidating to review and potentially criticize the code of your new colleagues.

Lack of accessibility

  • There is either no PR description or just a single sentence for a rather complex change. You are unable to comprehend the changes with the lack of context given. Some instructions would help to follow and to check the significant bits. That's why you procrastinate and secretly hope for someone else to fulfill the review duty.

  • An opened PR is massive in size, so you procrastinate that huge task for days.

Lack of empathy

  • You don't feel other people's pain when waiting for a PR review. Instead, you focus on your work, create your PR, and expect people to jump in the review right away.

  • There are plenty of PRs open. Unfortunately, you have your own set of urgent code changes. That means you must create yet another PR instead of participating in the review to clear the review jam. In addition, you explicitly ask people to review your PR to move to the front of the queue. Otherwise, your PR will lay around for days. Instead of solving or discussing the problem with the team, you are selfish and unfair to your colleagues by trying to get your stuff covered while ignoring the rest.

  • The last time you reviewed a PR you debated and argued with the reviewee. That's why you don't feel comfortable providing another review.

The solution

Did you see yourself or your former self in some of the described situations? We are humans and not perfect after all. It simply happens that we procrastinate, that we are captured in the zone (for better or worse) or intimidated by changes. Instead of changing people, we can offer a better approach to positively influence their habits. That's where I am keen to introduce a different code review practice.

A contribution guideline rarely describes how to conduct a review, so people typically follow their gut feeling. In such a situation it highly depends on the individuum how to perform the code review.

The alpha geek will dive deep into every single PR, which guarantees them to be the bottleneck. The inexperienced developer spends high amounts of time, because of the overwhelming complexity & size. Newcomers to the team will fear to provide a common review in order not to criticize the colleagues.

The novelty of our approach is the explicitly given choice for a reviewer. There is a total of three code review types to help your team improving their reviewing throughput. We introduce the shallow review, the common review, and the expert review which primarily differ in the reviewing intensity. The more intense the higher your knowledge requirements and the amount of time you have to invest. Your average code review probably corresponds to the common review and few reviews being of the expert format.

This code review pattern gives you a choice. You can fit more reviews in the same amount of time while dedicating enough time to the crucial changes while reducing your investment on trivial changes.

The shallow review

The shallow review is best suited for peers who are in a hurry (lacking time), not deeply involved (lacking knowledge), or feel intimidated by the code or experience of the reviewee (lacking confidence). A majority of pull requests should be suitable for this code review type, as long they have a size small enough. When a code change introduces major architectural changes, people with shallow reviews are still welcome but the reviewee must additionally require in-depth reviews.

Reviewer's cost

Typically such a shallow review should be completed within 5 to 10 minutes. That will allow you to conduct multiple pull request reviews per day. The cognitive load is rather low, so you can squeeze them in whenever you transition to another task or before or after breaks. The review type is ideal for small features and additions, fixes, and code refactorings.

How to conduct

  • Carefully read the PR description or any linked ticket to understand the problem

  • Glimpse through the PR to check in your mind if that indeed could solve the problem or deliver the feature.

  • Leave some positive comments or any doubts.

  • Feel free to ask a question for something you don't understand

  • Leave some praise for the good parts or things you learned 👍

  • Phrase some summary and then submit to complete the review.

  • Approve the review or if things are off post your review as a neutral comment. You should not block any code review though. This requires further interaction while you decided not to invest much time and thoughts by choosing a shallow review.

  • Be transparent and make sure to inform the reviewee that you only conducted a shallow review.

What the reviewee gets

The reviewee will get an overall confirmation that their solution works, fits the expectations and that it's properly tested if necessary. In addition, people might be able to spot mistakes and code quality issues while glimpsing through the files. Curious reviewers will ask questions which is an excellent opportunity for the reviewee to reflect on the chosen solution.

What the reviewee won't get

The reviewee won't get detailed feedback for their code, extensive discussions around the chosen methodology, or people running the code. It's a confirmation of the validity and correctness of the change and the reviewee won't get many insights on code elegance, edge cases, or the architectural choices.

The common review

The common review is, as the name says, probably the code review you typically conduct. It's great for people who are involved in the project and who can spend a greater amount of time for a thorough review to reveal logical errors, nasty bugs, or challenge algorithms and the architecture.

This type of review is ideal for people to learn more about the details of a project by reading and understanding the issue at hand and the implementation to solve it. If you have problems understanding things you can easily ask questions in this format to force the reviewee to reflect on their choices while improving your knowledge.

This is probably the type of review most people conduct and which potentially could get individuals and entire teams into trouble because of the required investment of time, lengthy discussion, and necessary feedback iterations.

The reviewer's cost

Typically the common review costs you 20 to 45 minutes (depending on the size of the PR of course). The cognitive load is medium. People have to know the context. Ideally, they worked on similar parts of the project before. This type of review is ideal for difficult bug fixes, large or complex features, and impactful refactorings or test improvements.

This review type can have few iterations of feedback, especially when the underlying concept is discussed.

How to conduct

  • Carefully read the corresponding issue and the PR description

  • Make sure to go over every single file. Your task is to have seen every single code change. Your review tool like GitHub or GitLab offers checkboxes to get through any amount of files without becoming lost.

  • Make sure you understand every single change. If something is unclear ask through an inline comment.

  • Lookout for careless mistakes (wrong signs, typos).

  • Leave some praise for the good parts or things you learned 👍

  • Try to spot irregularities in code that jump to mind. Can be things that are too complex to understand, functions that are too big, or simply things that seem not to fit the existing codebase. Provide a comment to share your doubts.

  • Challenge the solution. Does it fit the stated problem? Ask questions and fuel a discussion.

  • Write a note about aspects that could be improved but that are not crucial to the acceptance of the PR.

  • Look out for tests. Do they test relevant things? Are they present at all?

  • Optionally you run the code locally and verify the expected results. Can you break it?

  • Write a summary of your findings and if required repeat the important things to change or future things to improve beyond this PR. Such a summary improves the accessibility of your feedback and makes the pull request more enjoyable.

This type of review requires quite some time and dedication. Depending on the size of a PR you can easily spend 20-45min for the initial review not counting in excessive feedback iterations.

What the reviewee gets

The reviewee will get a thorough review of their changes. People will happily discuss, ask questions and provide insights, tips & improvements. The reviewer will make sure that the code changes are good enough to land in the production branch and that the overall architecture is properly extended and obeyed.

What the reviewee won't get

The purpose of this type of review is to provide feedback to shape and approve a rock-solid code change which can include new and additional features but not drastic architectural changes or the introduction of other new concepts and approaches.

The expert review

Use this mode wisely. It's not suited as your regular review type. Most people should stick to the common review. Whenever you introduce entirely new or very abstract concepts, security-related changes, or simply complex algorithms you want to have an in-depth review of your changes.

The involved expert reviews the code changes, carefully verifies the tests for relevance, and also runs the code locally to verify the expected results.

The reviewer's cost

Typically the expert review costs you 30 to 90 minutes. The cognitive load is high and intense. People ideally know the in and outs of the affected code parts and they understand the business domain to put the changes into the right context for evaluation. This type of review is ideal for complex features with new architectural decisions which will influence and shape the future of the project.

This type of review is a great candidate to educate and influence less seasoned developers. Give them a chance to work on some complex project and provide an expert review to accompany them in delivering a future-proof change.

How to conduct

  • Read the PR description carefully. Lookout for specific instructions to test the changes or different scenarios.

  • Locate the interesting bits of changes & additions in the PR.

  • You don't have to go through every single line of code, focus on the interesting details.

  • Check out the code locally, verify it's working locally, tinker around with the code to provoke exceptions or specific edge cases.

  • Make sure there are meaningful tests and try to run them locally in addition to the automated run to catch system-specific differences. Try to fail the tests by modifying the runtime code to prove the tests' relevance.

  • Probe the changes in your mind towards different scenarios and ask questions if necessary. "Does it work, if..", "Will it fail when.."

  • You are the expert. Do whatever else is required to make this PR a success.

The expert review is an in-depth code review. You dedicate a large chunk of focus time to give the reviewee valuable feedback about the changes with details that go far beyond the common review. You can spend easily 60 or even 90 minutes on the initial code review depending on the complexity of the change. Be prepared for follow-up discussions & changes to review and comment on which will require your involvement.

You can't do this often. Changes with such a high impact and complexity ultimately should happen rarely anyway.

What the reviewee gets

The reviewee gets an in-depth discussion of their proposed changes. For a seasoned developer this is a great way to challenge their ideas. Inexperienced developers can tackle a complex feature and work on it step-by-step together with an expert (although a synchronous review format like pair programming is usually much more efficient for this case)

What the reviewee won't get

The expert review is the dream package for any developer as you get so many valuable insights from your expert peers. On the other side be prepared to invest high amounts of time to answer the expert reviewing your code. You will not get a fast lane to land your features in the production branch. Even if you like that format, it's a rare and costly review type so you won't get them for every of your PRs even if you think it's a complex change.

Which type is the right one for me?

Most people naturally pick the common review and don't realize that you can have differently sized reviews. You are easily overwhelmed by the amount of time you have to spend for such a regular code review if the PRs pile up. The common review can easily take 30 minutes to complete. If you have four reviews you have to spend a quarter of your precious working day already.

Other folks exclude themselves from the common review because they feel intimidated by their lack of knowledge, the complexity of the code changes, or the superior level of the reviewee. The shallow review is an excellent instrument to encourage those people in participating in the daily code review routines and start gaining knowledge and experience. A shallow review is additionally a great tool for experienced developers. You can pick it and quickly confirm a change with the expectation that you did not dig as deep as usual.

Finally the expert review is your instrument to ensure an in-depth review of content that is pioneering a new approach or introducing security-relevant changes.

The moment you understand that you have a choice when you are requested for a code review, you can distribute your time more evenly and steer away from situations that would cause you to be the bottleneck. Furthermore, it's great to clarify expectations while conducting a review. You can tell the reviewee "It's good, but I only did a shallow review" which makes it clear that the PR will deliver an acceptable change without everything being perfect in terms of architecture or code finesse — which is acceptable in most agile environments anyway.

Being a team, the knowledge of different code review intensities helps to prevent large backlogs of PRs and frustrated reviewees waiting for some feedback. You have a way to motivate people to take part in the review process who previously lacked the necessary confidence.

Further improvements

We focused solely on the reviewer and how to conduct the actual review. Being the author of a PR (reviewee), you can increase the chances to receive a review if you make your PR more accessible. Provide a clear description. Repeat parts of any given Jira ticket, make the PR small enough, if it's big tell the reviewer why and where to focus on. Give clear instructions to run the code and to follow your changes.

This will greatly improve your chances to receive a review as you lower the effort to quickly check into your PR and you will encourage people who lack confidence or knowledge to provide their review too.

I'm planning to provide a follow-up to this blog post describing the ideal pull request which will focus on the reviewer's duty.


If you want to use the described approach, you need a working code review environment where people trust each other. Shallow reviews won't magically solve your toxic environment. You have to fix the foundation before optimizing your PR throughput.

Encourage the less experienced colleagues to start with shallow code reviews to actively take part in shaping the future of your codebase. Pick your code review type wisely though. If everyone gets lazy and provides only shallow reviews, your overall code quality might suffer, because nobody takes their time to check the important details of a code change.

Choose the common or even expert review too often and you will make yourself the bottleneck for the team and get stressed quickly.

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